Introduction to physical medicine and rehabilitation

The specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation is a branch of medicine that emphasizes non-surgical methods for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of bone, joint, muscle, nerve and spine diseases.
This branch of medicine is actually an intermediate specialty between orthopedics, neurology and rheumatology.
The most common problems and diseases that are treated by physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists are: neck pain, back pain, disc diseases and sciatica, spinal canal stenosis, arthritis and wear and tear of joints and nerve entrapment.
What distinguishes specialists in this field from others is their simultaneous familiarity with spine anatomy and neuromuscular system, detailed and comprehensive clinical examination, and their familiarity with non-surgical methods.

Physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists fields of work is very wide and diverse, from the rehabilitation of patients with cancer or cardio-pulmonary problems, to the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury and brain injury patients, to the non-surgical treatment of any disease related to bones, joints, muscles, tendons, and also healing any pain in the body.

Due to the breadth of this field, usually no physiatrist has expertise in all areas of this vast ocean, and basically every expert has more expertise in one or more areas of expertise. Therefore, it is important to know in which areas he/she works more before going to a physiatrist.

The physical medicine specialist has a variety of tools and skills to control pain and treat diseases, which determines a special treatment protocol for the client depending on the patient’s condition, type of disease or problems. Our treatments usually require the patient’s cooperation and awareness, sometimes our treatments are time-consuming and require the patient’s patience or multiple referrals.
The first step of most treatments is to change conditions and lifestyle and do corrective exercises.
Some of the tools and treatment methods of physical medicine specialists include: drug prescription, various injections in the joints and soft tissues of the body such as ozone therapy, prolotherapy, mesotherapy, PRP, etc., the use of kinesiology tapes, Acupuncture, assistive devices such as orthoses and splints, exercise therapy and corrective exercises, use of devices such as biofeedback, magnets, high-power lasers, Tecar therapy, shock wave…, and manual treatments and manipulation…